RF and Microwave Measurements-Course Syllabus

  • Introduction to RF and Microwaves Measurements

    • Scope of the Measurements Course
    • Objectives of Measurements
    • Measurement (in) accuracy and errors accumulation
    • Types of errors
    • Time and Frequency Domains
    • Fourier series and Fourier transform
    • Calibration and De-embedding
    • Modulation (Heterodyning) and Frequency-Shifting
    • Instantaneous, Peak and Mean Power
    • The Decibel for Power Ratios and linear system power budget
    • Logarithmic-scale representation of Power and Voltage dBm, dBW, dBμV/m
    • Modeling Lumped and Distributed Components at Radio Frequencies
    • Linear systems – impulse response and transfer function
    • Non-linear systems (memoryless) – basic characterization
    • Transmission lines, matching, and Smith’s Chart
    • Noise characterization in linear systems (NF, SNR …)
    • Stationary noise: W-K theorem, Rice representation of band-limited noise
    • Antennas and link budget (Friis link-budget and Radar equations)
    • Digital communications, constellations and I-Q diagram, matched filter, eye-pattern, ISI, BER/FER
    • Physical References for equipment calibration
  • Linear Figures of Merit

    • Gain (transducer, operating, available) and IL (insertion-loss), Leakage,
    • Power (average/mean, peak)
    • Efficiency and PAE (power-added-efficiency)
    • Impedance, mismatch, VSWR (voltage-standing-wave-ratio), RL (return-loss)
    • Spectrum, Power spectral density, 3dB-BW, Power (peak and average)
    • S-Parameters (amp/phase)
    • Group Delay, GDV (group-delay-variations)
    • NF (noise factor), SNR (signal-to-noise-ratio)
    • Mixer SSBNF (single-sided-NF)
    • Dynamic range (dB), SFDR (spurious-free-dynamic-range)
  • Non - Linear Figures of Merit

    • AM/AM
    • P1dB (dBm) (1dB-compression)
    • AM/PM
    • THD (total-harmonic-distortion)
    • IMR (intermodulation-ratio)
    • ULG (underlying-linear-gain)
    • IP2, IP3 (dBm) (intercept-points)
    • M-IMR (multi-tone-IMR)
    • ACPR (adjacent-channel-power-ratio), upper, lower, spot
    • NPR (noise-power-ratio)
    • CCPR (co-channel-power-ratio)
    • SINAD (signal-to-noise-and-distortion-ratio)
  • System-Level Figures of Merit

    • Constellation I-Q diagram
    • EVM (error-vector-magnitude)
    • I-Q imbalance
    • IR (image-rejection)
    • PAPR (peak-to-average-power-ratio)
    • BER, SER, FER (bit-error-rate, symbol-error-rate, frame-error-rate)
    • Frequency stability
    • RMS Phase noise, Jitter, FM noise
    • Rise-time
    • Settling-time
    • Ringing
    • Over-shoot
    • Slew-rate
    • ENOB (effective-number-of-bits)
    • DANL (displayed-average-noise-level)
    • NF and Sensitivity
  • Spectrum Analyzer

    • Equipment types and block-diagrams
    • Equipment measurement parameters
    • Equipment controls
    • Equipment calibration
    • System calibration and de-embedding
    • Equipment limitations (sensitivity, DR, resolution, power and frequency accuracies)
    • Instantaneous bandwidth
    • Measurement errors and their contributors
  • Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)

    • Equipment types and block-diagrams
    • Equipment measurement parameters
    • Equipment controls
    • Equipment calibration
    • System calibration
    • Equipment limitations (sensitivity, DR, resolution, power, phase, delay and frequency accuracies)
    • Instantaneous bandwidth
    • Measurement errors and their contributors
  • Signal Analyzer

    • Equipment types and block-diagrams
    • Equipment measurement parameters
    • Equipment controls
    • Equipment calibration
    • System calibration and de-embedding
    • Equipment limitations (sensitivity, DR, resolution, power, delay and frequency accuracies)
    • Measurement errors and their contributors
    • Instantaneous bandwidth
  • Fast Oscilloscope

    • Equipment types and block-diagrams
    • Equipment measurement parameters
    • Equipment controls
    • Equipment calibration
    • System calibration and de-embedding
    • Equipment limitations (sensitivity, DR, resolution, level and time accuracies)
    • Measurement errors and their contributors
    • Instantaneous bandwidth
  • Spectrum Analyzer (SA) Tests

    • Acquaintance with equipment measurement parameters and controls
    • Acquaintance with equipment accuracies
    • Lab tests:
      • Power measurements by several detectors (incl. peak, ave. and RMS)
      • Sensitivity measurements (for QAM and Pulse signals) with averaging (using varying BV and screens averaging)
      • Phase noise measurement of a frequency source
      • Measurement of NF (of an amplifier and SSBNF of a mixer)
      • Peak-to-Average measurement (PAPR)
      • Measurement of third-order intercept point (IP3) and SFDR
  • Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) Tests

    • Acquaintance with equipment measurement parameters and controls
    • Acquaintance with equipment accuracies
    • Lab tests:
      • Basic calibration
      • Improved calibration (suitable for reject band of filters)
      • Measurement of BPF (S-parameters, Phase and delay response)
      • Measurement of an Amplifier (AM/AM, AM/PM, 1dB comp., Harmonics)
      • Measurement of load mismatch, and perform Single-Stub matching
  • Signal Analyzer (VSA) Tests

    • Acquaintance with equipment measurement parameters and controls
    • Acquaintance with equipment accuracies
    • Lab tests:
      • Perform a broadband calibration (de-embedding)
      • EVM tests
      • Measurement of I-Q imbalance and IR (image-rejection)
      • BER measurement
      • Measurement PAPR of a detailed-QAM-constellation
      • Measurement of BW and ACPR
      • Measurement of emission mask-compliance for a WCDMA signal without and with an amplifier
  • Fast Oscilloscope Tests

    • Acquaintance with equipment measurement parameters and controls
    • Acquaintance with equipment accuracies
    • Lab tests:
      • Measurement of a periodic waveform and synchronization
      • Measure DANL (displayed-average-noise-level)
      • RF-probe calibration
      • Perform de-embedding for PCB measurement
      • Measurement of a broadband waveform after calibration

Test Lab with the

World’s most advanced test and measurement equipment

Lab tests:

  • Power measurements by several detectors (incl. peak, ave. and RMS)
  • Sensitivity measurements (for QAM and Pulse signals) with averaging (using varying BV and screens averaging)
  • Phase noise measurement of a frequency source
  • Measurement of NF (of an amplifier and SSBNF of a mixer)
  • Peak-to-Average measurement (PAPR)
  • Measurement of third-order intercept point (IP3) and SFDR
Spectrum Analyzer

Lab tests:

  • Basic calibration
  • Improved calibration (suitable for reject band of filters)
  • Measurement of BPF (S-parameters, Phase and delay response)
  • Measurement of an Amplifier (AM/AM, AM/PM, 1dB comp., Harmonics)
  • Measurement of load mismatch, and perform Single-Stub matching
Vector Network Analyzer-VNA

Lab tests:

  • Perform a broadband calibration (de-embedding)
  • EVM tests
  • Measurement of I-Q imbalance and IR (image-rejection)
  • BER measurement
  • Measurement PAPR of a detailed-QAM-constellation
  • Measurement of BW and ACPR
  • Measurement of emission mask-compliance for a WCDMA signal without and with an amplifier
Vector Signal Analyzer-VSA